Turkmenistan was formerly a part of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (TSSR). When the USSR collapsed, Turkmenistan was one of the last former republics to declare independence (27 October 1991).
The Armed Forces of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Ýaragly Güýçleri) consist of the Ground Forces (Army), Air and Air Defense Forces, Navy, Border Troops, Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and a National Guard. The ground forces were largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the USSR, but have been restructured and re-fitted in the years since the country was declared independent. Special units include a Marine Brigade, and a Special Operations Regiment (it is believed the 152nd Separate Air Assault Brigade is part of this Regiment).
At the time the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan were initially formed, Soviet-era uniforms were still being issued, and some of the patterns have continued to be worn into the present era.
Camouflage Patterns of Turkmenistan
- Variations of the Russian 1981 TTsKO (tritsvetnaia kamuflirovannaia odezhda) are the oldest patterns in service with Turkmen military personnel. Early uniforms were made in the USSR, but later issue versions appear to be imported from China.
- A variation of the TTsKO design unique to Turkmenistan has been documented and is seen here.
- The Soviet VSR or dubok (little oak) pattern with several color variations has been been documented in use by the Armed Forces and Border Guard services.
- The Russian-designed Berezhka (birch tree) pattern is worn by some units of the Turkmen Armed Forces, including paratroops and special forces.
- The Russian developed flora camouflage pattern has also been worn by the armed forces of Turkmenistan.
- Uniforms printed in the old and m81 style Chinese woodland camouflage designs are also known.
- The pixelated camouflage design seen here, incorporating dark grey, russet, and light olive shapes on a khaki background, has been issued to personnel of the Turkmenistan Defence Forces since around 2012-13.
- Circa 2012-13, this pixelated desert pattern was first observed on Turkmen troops appearing in a military parade. It appears to be a three-color design, with brown and tan shapes on a light sand colored background.
- Photographic documentation shows special forces personnel wear uniforms in Multicam design.