Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela is officially the Boliviarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela). The region was colonized by Spain in 1522, after overcoming the resistance of indigenous people, but the Spanish crown was again forced to defend its colony from 1775 to 1776 when the Makiritare organized a major resistance. Following a series of general uprisings the Venezuelan War of Independence began in 1811 and ended in 1821 after several key battles were won. Venezuela remained part of Gran Colombia, however, until 1830, when a new rebellion proclaimed an independent state.
Between 1859 and 1863, the Federal War was fought between Federalist (conservative) and Centalist (liberal) parties over the monopoly of land and government positions in Venezuela. Hundreds of thousands reputedly died, and the war finally ended with a Federal victory. The nation was involved in several disputes with European nations in 1895, 1902-3, and 1908. Throughout most of the 19th and early 20th centuries, Veneuzela was ruled by dictatorial leaders. Several guerilla movements were organized in the 1960s, but they agreed to lay down their arms after the democratic election of Rafael Caldera, who governed from 1969 to 1973.
The Fuerza Armada Nacional (FAN) are the armed forces of Venezuela, and consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, and the National Militia.
Venezuelan Camouflage Patterns
- The oldest documented Venezuelan camouflage pattern is a leaf design featuring black and off-white leaf shapes over large blotches of dark & light oilve green. The pattern appears to have been introduced in the 1980s and saw service until 1994 with units of the Army and Air Force.
- An interesting blue duck hunter pattern was worn during the 1980s by special units of the Policia Nacional (National Police). It is uncertain how long the pattern remained in service, but it was certainly replaced by the 1990s.
- The Guardia Nacional (National Guard) issued its own vertical tiger stripe camouflage pattern from the 1980s until 1994. This design featured vertical stripes of black, purplish-brown & olive green on a sparse pinkish-grey field.
- In 1994, the Armed Forces discarded their old camouflage patterns in favor of a locally-produced copy of the US m81 woodland design. This remained the standard combat pattern until 2005, when a political decision was made to do away with camouflage uniforms entirely and adopt a solid olive green combat uniform.
- The National Police have issued two different urban camouflage patterns based on the woodland design. The first of these features black, blue grey & periwinkle woodland shapes on a pale blue background.
- The second National Police pattern features black, dark grey & slate grey woodland shapes on a light grey background.